Creatinine and renal failure (your kidneys), Cystatin C

Uraemia

Creatinine and renal failure (your kidneys), Cystatin C



Warning signs of kidney disease may include:

Swelling or puffiness, particularly around the eyes or in the face, wrists, abdomen, thighs, or ankles
Urine that is foamy, bloody, or coffee-colored
A decrease in the amount of urine
Problems urinating, such as a burning feeling or abnormal discharge during urination, or a change in the frequency of urination, especially at night
Mid-back pain (flank), below the ribs, near where the kidneys are located
High blood pressure (hypertension)
As kidney disease worsens, symptoms may include:


Urinating more or less often
Feeling itchy
Tiredness, loss of concentration
Loss of appetite, nausea and/or vomiting
Swelling and/or numbness in hands and feet
Darkened skin
Muscle cramps

Creatinine:
Creatinine is a chemical waste molecule.
In our body creatinine is generated from muscle metabolism.
Creatinine is produced from creatine.
creatine is of importance for energy production in muscles.
About 2% of the body's creatine is converted to creatinine daily.
Creatinine is transported via bloodstream to the kidneys.
Kidneys filter out most of the creatinine in the urine.

Normal blood levels of creatinine
Creatinine in the blood
Adult males -- 0.6 to 1.2 milligrams (mg) per deciliter (dl).
Muscular young or middle-aged adults may have more creatinine in their blood than the norm for the general population.
A person with only one kidney may have a normal level of creatinine 1.8 or 1.9.
Elderly persons may have less creatinine in their blood than the norm.
Adult females -- 0.5 to 1.1 milligrams per deciliter.
Infants -- 0.2 or more, depending on their muscle development.
(a milligram = one-thousandth of a gram,
a deciliter = one-tenth of a liter.)
Note - In people with malnutrition, severe weight loss, and long standing illnesses the muscle mass tends to diminish over time and, therefore, their creatinine level may be lower than expected for their age.
Creatinine levels that reach 2.0 or higher in babies and 10.0 or higher in adults may indicate severe kidney impairment and the need for a dialysis machine to remove wastes from the blood.

Reasons for elevated blood creatinine

Conditions impairing function of the kidneys will probably raise the creatinine level in the blood. It is important to determine whether the process leading to kidney dysfunction (kidney failure, azotemia) is longstanding or recent.

Causes of longstanding kidney disease in adults are high blood pressure and diabetes mellitus. Certain drugs can sometimes cause abnormally elevated creatinine levels. Serum creatinine can also transiently rise after ingestion of large amount of dietary meat.

Creatinine is tested to determine if your kidneys are functioning normally and to monitor treatment for kidney disease
Creatinine is also tested routinely as part of a comprehensive or basic metabolic panel; if your physician suspects that you are suffering from kidney dysfunction or if you are acutely or chronically ill with a condition that may affect your kidneys and/or be worsened by kidney dysfunction; at intervals to monitor treatment for kidney disease or kidney function while on certain medications. For creatinine test a blood sample is drawn from a vein in the arm and/or a 24-hour urine sample.

Cystatin C
Cystatin C is tested when a doctor suspects that a person may have decreased kidney function, especially when a patient has normal creatinine and eGFR test results. Cystatin C test may be ordered at intervals when a person has known kidney dysfunction.

TREATMENT

Ailanthus glandulosa
Suppression of urine, impending uraemia, stupor or delirium, with dusky red face.

Ammonium carbonicum
Decomposition of the blood, deficient oxygenation (Antimonium tartaricum, Carbo veg., Arsenicum. ). Somnolence or drowsiness with rattling of large bubbles in the lungs, grasping at flocks, bluish or purplish hue of the lips from lack of oxygen in the blood, and brownish color to the tongue. Uraemia.
Dropsical condition lessened, uraemia with convulsions.

Apis mellifica
Hydrops after scarlatina, even with uraemic symptoms.

Apocynum cannabinum
Uraemic vomiting. Puerperal convulsions from uraemia.

Arsenicum album
Acute nephritis. Chronic nephritis. This remedy corresponds to all stages of Bright's disease, bearing a closer resemblance than any other remedy. It comes in later in the disease where there is dropsy, pale skin, waxen appearance, watery diarrhoea and great thirst. The urine is dark, casts are abundant, and it contains much albumen. There are attacks of dyspnoea when lying down in the evening and after midnight, relieved by an expectoration of mucus. It may come in immediately after Aconite in many cases. Blood boils. Uraemic conditions with anxiety and sinking of vital forces. Violent inflammations (Cantharis) with intense burning, agony, thirst and subsequent collapse. Arsenicum, lacks the sexual erethism (Cantharis), and its delirium is associated with a tendency to self-mutilation or to suicide. The patient exhibits fear of death, and restlessness often alternates with the stupor. Uraemia, anguish, with thoughts of murder, especially in drunkards. Uraemia, with vomiting, colic, spells of suffocation. Emphysema. Heart disease. Hydropericardium with great irritability, anguish and restlessness; especially in uraemia, etc. Uraemia (Pip-m.). Uraemia with vomiting, colic, spells of suffocation, emphysema; heart disease, with great anguish, especially in drunkards. Uraemia at the commencement of scarlatina. Ascites from puerperal peritonitis; uraemic convulsions. Valvular disease, with intermittent pulse, dyspnoea, anasarca; can not go up stairs; worse nights; hydropericardium with great irritability, anguish; restlessness; especially in uraemia; fatty degeneration.

Arum triphyllum
Uraemia. Child tosses about the bed unconscious and has involuntary picking at one spot or boring the finger into the nose; the urine completely suppressed. The brain is very much irritated, as shown by the restless tossing about and the boring of the head into the pillow. Arum triphyllum may save the patient.
Irritation about the throat, mouth, or nose, picking or boring at the nose, at one spot till it bleeds. Indicated when the cerebral inflammation comes from the suppression of some violently acting poison, such as we find present in scarlatina or diphtheria. Fever great weakness (last stages, uraemia).

Asclepias cornuti
Uraemia, urine after profuse discharges is scanty or suppressed.

Aurum metallicum
Narcosis with uraemia.

Benzoicum acidum
Puerperal albuminuria, uraemia and convulsions.

Cannabis Indica
Delusions as to distance and as to time. Time and space seem to be greatly extended. Objects but a few feet off seem many yards distant. Renal disease - burning, stitches, aching in the kidneys, pains when laughing; also when uraemia sets in attended by severe headache, with a sensation as if the vertex were opening and shutting. If delirium appears it is associated with the delusions respecting time and space.
Time seems too long; seconds seem ages; a few rods an immense distance. Uræmic headache congestions of brain and spine, Meningitis, abuse of Alcohol, etc. Throbbing and weight at occiput. Headache with flatulence. Involuntary shaking of head. Migraine attack preceded by unusual excitement with loquacity. Must strain; dribbling; has to wait some time before the urine flows. Stitches and burning in urethra. Dull pain in region of right kidney.


Cantharis vesicatoria
Gonorrhoea (Cantharis) when the chordee is well marked. Uraemic coma, delirium and convulsions. Post-scarlatinal nephritis; threatening uraemia.

Chloroformium
Puerperal convulsions from uraemia or reflex irritation.

Cuprum arsenicum.
Uraemic conditions. Obstinate vomiting. Uraemic vomiting. Constant fruitless attempts at vomiting, after which, nearly unconscious, fell back into bed; at first, vomiting of food followed by vomiting of murky water mixed with green slimy strings; every swallow of water or food sets vomiting; no appetite; excessive thirst, burning pain in stomach, great lassitude. Suppression of urine, uraemia. Renal inefficiency and uraemia. Vomiting and diarrhoea; with uraemia.

Cuprum metallicum
Cuprum is a valuable remedy for uraemic eclampsia. Uraemic convulsions. General convulsions, with continued vomiting and violent colic, uraemic eclampsia with loquacious delirium, followed by apathy, tongue and breath cold; face distorted, often red; eyes projecting, staring; long, shrill screams; finally exhaustion, sweat, torpor, and cessation of convulsions. Suppression of urine, uraemia (Arsen.)

Digitalis purpurea
Uraemic poisoning with drowsiness, insensibility and frightful convulsions. Contracted kidney.

Ferrum phosphoricum
Uraemic vomiting.

Hydrocyanic acid
Uraemic convulsions when the medula is affected. Uraemia, action of heart diminished; pulse accelerated, soft; stagnation of circulation in heart and lungs; palpitation, with indescribable anguish and dyspnoea; depression of sensibility; first convulsions and afterwards paralysis; extreme apathy; slow moaning breathing; rattling in trachea; paralysis of larynx or sudden paralysis of heart. Asphyctic form of uraemia.

Hyoscyamus niger
Symptoms of uraemia and acute nervous exhaustion.

Jaborandi
It is of most service in renal disease, especially with uraemia, eliminating both water, and urea. Contra-indicated in heart failure, and in post-puerperal uraemia, and in senile cases.

Serum anquillae
In the presence of acute nephritis with threatening uraemia we should always think of this serum.
The serum of the eel has given very small results in attacks of asystolia; but it has been very efficacious in cardiac uremia.

Kalium bromatum
Symptoms of apoplectic attacks, uraemic or otherwise; somnolence and stertor, convulsions, aphasia, albuminuria.

Iodium
Uraemia; croupy exudation in mouth and fauces; tongue covered with thick brown, leather- like coating. Senile hypertrophy and induration of prostate, stricture of urethra and ammonaemia.

Lachesis mutus
Spasms in meningitis. Uraemic convulsions.

Lonicera xylosteum
Uraemic convulsions.

Mercury
chronic nephritis.

Moschus
Convulsions, tetanic spasms; in consequence of albuminuria in fifth week of an attack of scarlet fever; from uraemic poisoning.

Oenanthe crocata
Puerperal eclampsia; uraemic convulsions.

Opium
Coma, incomplete insensibility; will be aroused for a moment when addressed in a loud tone of voice and then relapse into stupor; extremities and face bluish or livid; loud, stertorous inspirations; coldness of skin; uraemic.

Phosphorus
Acute atrophy of brain and medulla oblongata, with uraemia.

Picricum acidum
Uraemia with complete anuria.

Plumbum metallicum
Granular degenerations of the kidneys, with tendency to uraemic convulsions. Dropsy, sallow face, emaciation, oedema about the ankles. Contracted or cirrhotic form of nephritis. Cirrhosis of kidneys. Very little dropsy or albuminuria, tendency to uraemia and consequent convulsions.

Solidago virgaurea
Kidney disfunctions; chronic nephritis; uraemic asthma.

Terebinthinae oleum
Stupefaction and deep sleep. Uraemia. Fainting. Puerperal convulsions from uraemic poisoning. Uraemic spasms in albuminuria, with great prostration.

Urea pura
Albuminuria, diabetes; uraemia.

ZINGIBER OFFICINALE
Urine thick, turbid, of strong odor, suppressed. Complete suppression after typhoid. Complete cessation of function of kidneys.

 

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